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>“La Vortaro”Pilger: “BER”Bick: “Esperanto-dansk”>

Help: * ?

At the end of each part of this course, there will be a explanation of something important and especially worth remembering. Below, you can read all of these explanations.

Parto 1

  • All nouns, for example "homo" (=person) and "pomo" (=apple) end with -o.
  • The suffix -in- indicates the female gender. For example "viro" (=man) - "virino" (=woman).
  • The words "viro" and "virino" can be used for people of all ages.
  • The words "kio" (=what) and "tio" (=that) are used when referring to an undefined thing.

Parto 2

  • The words "kiu" (=which/who) and "tiu" (=that one, that person) are used when referring to an individual (or a definite thing).

Parto 3

  • No clarification.

Parto 4

  • No clarification.

Parto 5

  • To indicate that the sentence is referring to multiple things (plural), you use the -j ending. For example, "homoj" (=people).

Parto 6

  • No clarification.

Parto 7

  • Now you have met all personal pronouns: mi (=I), vi (=you), li (=he), ŝi (=she), ĝi (=it), ni (=we), ili (=they).

Parto 8

  • Because "ili" is plural ("they"), you have to use "kiuj" (=which) to ask about "ili".
  • Don't forget that "kiuj" is used when referring to people (and definite objects) and that "kio" is used when referring to an undefined thing or undefined things. (You CAN'T say "kioj".)

Parto 9

  • The suffix -ist- indicates a person's profession or serious hobby; for example "instrui" (=to teach) - "instruisto" (=teacher). (We will discuss the other uses of -ist- in Part 33.)

Parto 10

  • Up until now, you have seen three words which begin with "ki-": kio (=what), kiu (=who/which), and kie (=where). In all, there are 10 words like this, and we will discuss them in this course.

Parto 11

  • The word "ĉu" is primarily used to create questions whose answer begins with "jes" (=yes) or "ne" (=no). For example, from the sentence "Ŝi estas Ana." (= She is Ana.) You can create the question "Ĉu ŝi estas Ana?" (= Is she Ana?).

Parto 12

  • Instead of "Mi estas Ana", you can say "Mia nomo estas Ana" (= My name is Ana), if you want. (There are also other ways to express that, but in this course we will only use "Mi estas ...".)

Parto 13

  • The -n ending indicates, among other things, the object of a sentence.
  • To be able to use -n correctly, you have to understand well what is a subject and what is an object. If you feel uncertain about that, we recommend that you read about the Object in the grammatical overview.

Parto 14

  • When the object of the sentence is plural, you use the -jn ending. For example, "Ana fotas virojn." (= Ana photographs men.)

Parto 15

  • The word "estas" (=is, are, am) is used primarily to link a description to the subject. Therefore, we don't use the -n ending in sentences such as: "Ŝi estas programisto." (= She is a programmer.)

Parto 16

  • Adjectives (that is, words that describe nouns) end with -a.
  • When a question begins with "kia" (=what kind of), the answer includes an adjective (a word that ends with -a).

Parto 17

  • No clarification.

Parto 18

  • No clarification.

Parto 19

  • The verb ending -is indicates the past tense. For example, "Ana fotis pomon." (= Ana photographed an apple.)
  • The verb ending -as indicates the present tense. For example, "Ana fotas pomon." (= Ana is photographing an apple.)

Parto 20

  • The verb ending -os indicates the future tense. For example, "Ana fotos pomon." (= Ana will photograph an apple.)

Parto 21

  • In an answer to a question that begins with "kiel?" (=how?), you often use an adverb. (An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.) You can create an adverb with the -e ending.

Parto 22

  • In the answer to "kiam?" (=when?) you often use an adverb that relates to time. (An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.) You can create an adverb with the -e ending.

Parto 23

  • In the answer to "kie?" (=where?) you use a preposition with a noun or an adverb. Prepositions are words like "sur" (=on top of), "sub" (=under), and "en" (=in).

Parto 24

  • You have already seen that -n can be used to indicate an object ("Ana fotas knabon.") -n is also used to show direction. For example: "kie" (=where) - "kien" (=to where).
  • After prepositions which indicate a place, you can use -n to express movement to that place. For example: "Mi iras en la ĉambro" (= I go in the room [not entering or leaving the room]) - "Mi iras en la ĉambron." (= I go into the room [I was outside the room and I entered it])

Parto 25

  • You show possession with de, for example "La hundo estas de Fang." (= The dog is Fang's).

Parto 26

  • No clarification.

Parto 27

  • Tens and hundreds are combined into one word: "dudek" (20), "tridek" (30), "ducent" (200), "okcent" (800). All other numbers should be pronounced and written as separate words, including thousands: "dek unu" (11), "dek du" (12), "du mil" (2000).

Parto 28

  • You use the -n ending also to express quantity or measure. For example "La pilko kostas ok stelojn." (= The ball costs 8 stars.)
  • "Stelo" is the name of a currency.

Parto 29

  • No clarification.

Parto 30

  • The -i ending is used for verbs in their basic form, the infinitive. For example: "studi" (= to study), "instrui" (= to teach)
  • Complex verb constructions (...as + ...i) consist of a primary verb and another verb with the same subject, which always has the infinitive form. For example: "Ana ŝatas studi." (= Ana likes to study)

Parto 31

  • The suffix -em- indicates inclination or preference.
  • Don't forget that when the word "kia" is in the question, the answer includes a word which ends with -a. For example: -"Kia persono estas ŝi?" (= What kind of a person is she?) - "Ŝi estas bonkora persono." (= She is a good-hearted person.)

Parto 32

  • The suffix -ul indicates a person with the trait that the root describes. For example: "juna" (=young) - "junulo" (=a youth, a young person)

Parto 33

  • The suffix -ist- indicates profession ("fotisto") or ideology ("komunisto") or hobby ("esperantisto").

Parto 34

  • The suffix -et- indicates diminuation of size or strength.

Parto 35

  • The suffix -eg- indicates an increase in size or strength.

Parto 36

  • The suffix -ig gives the meaning of causing someone to do something, or causing something to happen, and so on. For example: "la viro falas" (= the man falls) - "la viro faligas arbon" (= the man fells a tree [causes the tree to fall]), "la virino kuras" (= the woman runs) - "la virino kurigas la ĉevalon" (= the woman makes the horse run).
  • A verb with -ig- always has an object (-n) but it doesn't always have to be written/said.

Parto 37

  • The suffix -il indicates an instrument or method.

Parto 38

  • The suffix -iĝ- shows a change of state or the subject undergoing a process. For example: "helas" (=becomes bright) kaj "lavas" (= gets washed).
  • A verb with -iĝ- never has an object.

Parto 39

  • The prefix ek- indicates a start or beginning.

Parto 40

  • The prefix ge- indicates both sexes together.

Parto 41

  • "Kioma horo estas?" literally means: "Which hour (1st? 2nd? 3rd? ...) is it?" The more usual English translation is "What time is it?"

Parto 42

  • The verb ending -u indicates the imperative form (a command).

Parto 43

  • The verb ending -us indicates the conditional form, usually set off by the word "would" in English, as in "I would go but..."

Parto 44

  • to "Kial?" (=Why?), you can answer with "Ĉar..." (=Because...)

Parto 45

  • No clarification.

Parto 46

  • No clarification.

Parto 47

  • No clarification.

Parto 48

  • No clarification.

Parto 49

  • No clarification.

Parto 50

  • No clarification.