At the end of each part of this course, there will be a explanation of something important and especially worth remembering. Below, you can read all of these explanations.
- All nouns, for example "homo" (=person) and "pomo" (=apple) end with -o.
- The suffix -in- indicates the female gender. For example "viro" (=man) - "virino" (=woman).
- The words "viro" and "virino" can be used for people of all ages.
- The words "kio" (=what) and "tio" (=that) are used when referring to an undefined thing.
- The words "kiu" (=which/who) and "tiu" (=that one, that person) are used when referring to an individual (or a definite thing).
- To indicate that the sentence is referring to multiple things (plural), you use the -j ending. For example, "homoj" (=people).
- Now you have met all personal pronouns: mi (=I), vi (=you), li (=he), ŝi (=she), ĝi (=it), ni (=we), ili (=they).
- Because "ili" is plural ("they"), you have to use "kiuj" (=which) to ask about "ili".
- Don't forget that "kiuj" is used when referring to people (and definite objects) and that "kio" is used when referring to an undefined thing or undefined things. (You CAN'T say "kioj".)
- The suffix -ist- indicates a person's profession or serious hobby; for example "instrui" (=to teach) - "instruisto" (=teacher). (We will discuss the other uses of -ist- in Part 33.)
- Up until now, you have seen three words which begin with "ki-": kio (=what), kiu (=who/which), and kie (=where). In all, there are 10 words like this, and we will discuss them in this course.
- The word "ĉu" is primarily used to create questions whose answer begins with "jes" (=yes) or "ne" (=no). For example, from the sentence "Ŝi estas Ana." (= She is Ana.) You can create the question "Ĉu ŝi estas Ana?" (= Is she Ana?).
- Instead of "Mi estas Ana", you can say "Mia nomo estas Ana" (= My name is Ana), if you want. (There are also other ways to express that, but in this course we will only use "Mi estas ...".)
- The -n ending indicates, among other things, the object of a sentence.
- To be able to use -n correctly, you have to understand well what is a subject and what is an object. If you feel uncertain about that, we recommend that you read about the Object in the grammatical overview.
- When the object of the sentence is plural, you use the -jn ending. For example, "Ana fotas virojn." (= Ana photographs men.)
- The word "estas" (=is, are, am) is used primarily to link a description to the subject. Therefore, we don't use the -n ending in sentences such as: "Ŝi estas programisto." (= She is a programmer.)
- Adjectives (that is, words that describe nouns) end with -a.
- When a question begins with "kia" (=what kind of), the answer includes an adjective (a word that ends with -a).
- The verb ending -is indicates the past tense. For example, "Ana fotis pomon." (= Ana photographed an apple.)
- The verb ending -as indicates the present tense. For example, "Ana fotas pomon." (= Ana is photographing an apple.)
- The verb ending -os indicates the future tense. For example, "Ana fotos pomon." (= Ana will photograph an apple.)
- In an answer to a question that begins with "kiel?" (=how?), you often use an adverb. (An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.) You can create an adverb with the -e ending.
- In the answer to "kiam?" (=when?) you often use an adverb that relates to time. (An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.) You can create an adverb with the -e ending.
- In the answer to "kie?" (=where?) you use a preposition with a noun or an adverb. Prepositions are words like "sur" (=on top of), "sub" (=under), and "en" (=in).
- You have already seen that -n can be used to indicate an object ("Ana fotas knabon.") -n is also used to show direction. For example: "kie" (=where) - "kien" (=to where).
- After prepositions which indicate a place, you can use -n to express movement to that place. For example: "Mi iras en la ĉambro" (= I go in the room [not entering or leaving the room]) - "Mi iras en la ĉambron." (= I go into the room [I was outside the room and I entered it])
- You show possession with de, for example "La hundo estas de Fang." (= The dog is Fang's).
- Tens and hundreds are combined into one word: "dudek" (20), "tridek" (30), "ducent" (200), "okcent" (800). All other numbers should be pronounced and written as separate words, including thousands: "dek unu" (11), "dek du" (12), "du mil" (2000).
- You use the -n ending also to express quantity or measure. For example "La pilko kostas ok stelojn." (= The ball costs 8 stars.)
- "Stelo" is the name of a currency.
- The -i ending is used for verbs in their basic form, the infinitive. For example: "studi" (= to study), "instrui" (= to teach)
- Complex verb constructions (...as + ...i) consist of a primary verb and another verb with the same subject, which always has the infinitive form. For example: "Ana ŝatas studi." (= Ana likes to study)
- The suffix -em- indicates inclination or preference.
- Don't forget that when the word "kia" is in the question, the answer includes a word which ends with -a. For example: -"Kia persono estas ŝi?" (= What kind of a person is she?) - "Ŝi estas bonkora persono." (= She is a good-hearted person.)
- The suffix -ul indicates a person with the trait that the root describes. For example: "juna" (=young) - "junulo" (=a youth, a young person)
- The suffix -ist- indicates profession ("fotisto") or ideology ("komunisto") or hobby ("esperantisto").
- The suffix -et- indicates diminuation of size or strength.
- The suffix -eg- indicates an increase in size or strength.
- The suffix -ig gives the meaning of causing someone to do something, or causing something to happen, and so on. For example: "la viro falas" (= the man falls) - "la viro faligas arbon" (= the man fells a tree [causes the tree to fall]), "la virino kuras" (= the woman runs) - "la virino kurigas la ĉevalon" (= the woman makes the horse run).
- A verb with -ig- always has an object (-n) but it doesn't always have to be written/said.
- The suffix -il indicates an instrument or method.
- The suffix -iĝ- shows a change of state or the subject undergoing a process. For example: "heliĝas" (=becomes bright) kaj "laviĝas" (= gets washed).
- A verb with -iĝ- never has an object.
- The prefix ek- indicates a start or beginning.
- The prefix ge- indicates both sexes together.
- "Kioma horo estas?" literally means: "Which hour (1st? 2nd? 3rd? ...) is it?" The more usual English translation is "What time is it?"
- The verb ending -u indicates the imperative form (a command).
- The verb ending -us indicates the conditional form, usually set off by the word "would" in English, as in "I would go but..."
- to "Kial?" (=Why?), you can answer with "Ĉar..." (=Because...)